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To answer the question: no, you cannot file criminal charges. That is because no individual can ever file criminal charges in the United States. A criminal charge would have to be filed by the prosecuting attorney. If your friend actually embezzled your money (meaning you voluntarily gave it to him, but he then misappropriated it), you could report this to the police and/or the prosecutor. (I doubt that this was an embezzlement or any other criminal fraud.) If this involves a large sum of money, it is POSSIBLE that the statute of limitations has not run, since the statute for felony fraud offenses is four years, and dates from discovery of the fraud.
However, there is not enough information here for me to know for sure whether or not this was actually an embezzlement, but I doubt it. In the context of a loan, you would have to show that he had the intent not to repay the money when he got it, which would probably be impossible to prove. Moreover, any prosecutor would be leary of a charge where the money was transferred so long ago. I therefore tend to agree with the suggestions here that you think about civil remedies to get your money back, if you are entitled to that.