You don't say why you were locked up, but I assume that since you were transferred that it was unrelated to child support.
In only two states, California and Arizona do single fathers have presumed rights to a child born out of wedlock. So yes, she has legal standing to prevent you from seeing the child until you have obtain a family court order designating otherwise.
Since the child has residency in Colorado, it will need to be filed there, and you will need an attorney. You will need to take the time to interview five attorneys, than sit down with your notes and decide which you feel will best represent your interests.
Until you do this, there are a few things you can be doing. Notify her by two letters that you will be coming to visit the child on a specific weekend. Send one certified and the other with delivery confirmation. If she refuses to sign for the first, she will still receive the second. If the certified one comes back, place it unopened in you legal file folder.
If she calls to say you can't see the child, you might record it. Check the web site below on the laws. But, inform her that you will be still coming and bringing witnesses to the visitation. Don't threaten her with anything, including legal action. If she still denies you access to the child, these witnesses can testify to the fact you were making an effort before involving the courts.
Many say that all courts are rigged against dads, but in reality, it is more about attorneys unwilling or lack the knowledge to truly fight for the father's rights. This is why it is important to learn how to interview and hire the right attorney. It is also important to do as much as possible on your own and not pay the attorney to do it.
Now, you can't just record your conversations with her, You must also transcribe it into a daily journal.
If you want to learn how to do all this go to Dads House in Yahoo Groups. There's an educational manual in the file section that can teach you what you need to know. The organization it came from is defunct due to attorneys that tried to take it over and make money from it.
Take the time to learn what you can and should do.
One more thing, take a parenting class. The court will order you to do so anyway, so taking the lead makes you look proactive in the matter.
If you are in high school, I would not recommend that you do anything to learn about the law now.
The law is constantly changing and evolving. It is likely that anything you study today will be completely revised by the time you are old enough to attend law school.
What you need to do is study your school work. Your grades are very important. You should also take as many writing classes as you can.
Volunteer work is important as well. It doesn't matter what kind of volunteer work you do, but your future college and your future law school will be much more likely to admit you (and offer you grants/scholarships) if you have a solid history of volunteerism.
If you want to read a couple of legal books: I'd recommend Gideon's Trumpet (which is about the U.S. Supreme Court decision of Gideon v. Wainright and is the landmark decision that gave criminal defendants the right to be represented by a lawyer) and A Civil Action - which describes the efforts of a personal injury attorney.
I would also encourage you to do some independent reading on the Miranda decision that gave rise to "you have the right to remain silent." In my experience, very, very, very few people who are not lawyers understand what Miranda really says or does.